When the sun goes down and darkness falls, some animals wake up and get out of their hiding places. Some of them use the amazing ways that leave the light is on. The scientific term for this is bioluminescence – or the production and broadcasting of light by a living organism. Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. Its name is a hybrid word, originating from the Greek bios for “living” and the Latin lumen “light”. Bioluminescence is a naturally occurring form of chemiluminescence where energy is released by a chemical reaction in the form of light emission. Fireflies, anglerfish, and other creatures produce the chemicals luciferin (a pigment) and luciferase (an enzyme). The luciferin reacts with oxygen to create light. The luciferase acts as a catalyst to speed up the reaction, which is sometimes mediated by cofactors such as calcium ions or ATP. The chemical reaction can occur either inside or outside the cell. In bacteria, the expression of genes related to bioluminescence is controlled by an operon called the Lux operon.
Firefly is a winged insect that glows yellow, green or red due to chemically produced light emitted from the stomach. Coils are also called lightening bugs or fireflies. Light-producing organs located below the last wrist on his stomach and has three layers. The middle layer of cells with a lot of nerve endings and the acting chemical compounds mixed with oxygen from the air, producing energy in the form of light. It is reflected by the lower layer white cells that act as reflectors. On the outside there is a transparent layer that lets the light. Firefly light is called “cold light”, because when illumination does not generate heat. Firefly larvae also emit light and are called “glowing worms.” Coils are usually brown and soft body, and males and females really look like. They are known as nocturnal insects, almost all types of light signals emitted at night. These signals are usually sent to find and recognize males and females for mating.
Dragon-fish (Dragonfish) is a fish that lives at depths of about 2 kilometers from southern hemispheres. They capture prey when they use their own biological light that can alternately turn on or off. In addition to attracting prey, fish-dragon light used to attract a partner during mating. Females and males are different in appearance. Females are black and have long about 40 cm. They have a mustache, long and strange growths coming out of the sharp chin and rotated teeth-like spikes. Whisker ends lighted tip of the fish used to attract prey. Male, on the other hand, has no teeth, no mustache, a gray or brown in color, has a dysfunctional bowels and 5 inches longer than the females.
Angler (Devilfish) is a fish that lives at depths greater than 400 meters. Bone of its fins like a fishing rod on top is the Clio colonies of bacteria. These bacteria produce light with which angler catches prey. Attracted by the light, prey swims sea devil and completed his sharp teeth. Females sea devils can reach the length and up to 1 m, while males are very small and their length is about 5 cm. They live as parasites on females. Leather females eventually cover them, some of their bodies disappear and they become completely dependent on it. Although they are useless and dependent females, males have an important role in reproduction. Without them it would not create a new little devils.
Cookiecutter shark (cookie cutter shark) is the shark that lives in warm parts of the ocean. Its length is between 42 and 56 cm, has a cylindrical body with short rounded head, large green eyes and a transverse mouth. Black in color, and its bottom is filled with cells that emit svelost greenish glint. In combination with the dim light coming from the surface, the light emitted by a shark blurs the contours of her body. When dusk falls this shark is rising from great depths to the surface of the water, and in the morning again lowered. It is named after shards of meat-like cookies that bites from large animals and humans if it is found in the vicinity. She breaks off pieces even with the submarine cables and submarine.
The vampire squid (Vampire Squid) is a squid that lives at depths of 600-900 m. It looks like a creature that came from science fiction and more like a jellyfish than other squid. Her body želantinasto, about 15 cm long, and its total length with fins not exceeding 30 cm. Along the body are fins that resemble ears. Her body was covered with bodies that emit light. These are special photocell that create bluish light. When the cells are shut down squid is completely invisible in the dark waters that surround it. For this animal želantinastu squid swims very quickly. It reaches a speed of two body lengths per second and can accelerate up to the speed for five seconds.
Sloane’s viperfish that live in the warm parts of the ocean at depths between 200 and 4700 m. This chick looks terrible call and marine gujom. It grows up to 35 inches and is easily recognizable by a very large mouth and sharp teeth. His teeth are so long that they could not fit inside the mouth, but in front of them. His body is elongated and silver color, and if it has a large number, which secrete light. Secretion of light attracts small fish that feed Sloane’s viperfish.