The mask is an artifact that is worn to cover the entire face or just your eyes. It is used since prehistoric times for religious rituals, theater performances or festivals such as Carnival.
Origin of name
Unsure the etymology of the word probably derives from medieval Latin màsca, witch is still used to this effect in Piedmontese language. Trace the origin of the term lies in the ancient High German (see Lombard) and Provencal masc, sorcerer. From the original meaning is reached later than the ghost, ghost, disguised appearance to frighten people. The linguistic evolution probably led to the addition of an ‘r’ by placing the end of the first formed and subsequently mascra of mascara.
Some scholars have suggested a derivation of the expression etymon Arab maschara or mascharat, joke, joke, deriving from the verb sachira, mock, mock, imported into the language of the medieval crusades. However this word is already present in some earlier texts in the Crusades. Others see a possible combination with the term from which we pregallico baska rabacher the French verb, to make noise.
It is therefore likely to come to a sort of assimilation within the meaning ‘mask’ and the appearance of primordial ‘bad blood’ or ‘deceased’, both collegiate and festive look.
Common to many people is the use of such a symbol since the Archaic, rarely replaced, but often accompanied by body paint, tattooing or scarification. It is designed as an effective means of communication between men and gods, as a tool for alienating conventions space-time, in order to project within a world ‘other’, divine, ritual, mystical. He who wears the mask loses its identity to assume that the object represented ritual.
During the Upper Paleolithic, as witnessed by some cave paintings in France, in the Sahara and in southern Africa, masks were associated with magical practices homeopathy in dance before the hunt. Is also frequently the combination of mask rituals warriors or even more for cremation.
A significant example of the use of funerary mask is present at the Egyptian civilization (see practice of embalming), where the use of such objects is first mentioned in the Old Kingdom until the Roman era (first century AD) . The funeral masks also appear in the Mycenaean royal tombs (see the tomb of Agamemnon) and spread through the Phoenicians in the western areas of influence Punic. In ancient Greece and the classical form does not retain its function as direct burial, is no longer placed on the face of the corpse, but still remains tied to the realm of death, the wrath of the gods (ritual masks of deities in their wrathful appearance, exhibited by the priests, especially during rituals mystery) or wildlife. In this type of use is often a tool of communication with the spirit of the deceased to prevent such harm to the joint.
Witness illustrious ritual use of the mask is Virgil, who in a passage of the Georgics (Georgics II, 380 ff.) Describes the masks worn in honor of Bacchus, in a joyful and carefree celebratory atmosphere, as “now horrenda”. However, the relationship between the mask and death to rise again in the Hellenistic and Roman mystery cults within. The mask of Silenus, for example, becomes a symbol par excellence of initiation death (see the frescoes of the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii), within the context of the greek-roman so we can find the interrelationship between sacred and profane, implemented through the use of theatrical masks.
Use in the theater
In greek theater masks had the dual purpose of characterizing the character and act as a sounding board to amplify the voice and sound to make the dialogue more audible.
The theater Osco, a form of popular theater in central Italy before the Roman conquest fixed font used for the characters represented by masks. The commedia dell’arte makes use of masks that span, they become habits, and covered her whole body.
The use of masks used in traditional forms of theater from around the world.
The use of masks is covered
in musical performances of the Baroque
Is important to point out briefly how the many ethno-anthropological studies have distinguished the different functions of the form within the various continental areas in a very general, the mask is a tool with which to capture the power of supernatural spirits and appropriating, using it to benefit the community. It is often associated with ancestor worship. The human subject or animal is the most common, it must still look to the spirit in which you want to act, hiding the wearer. However, the mask is not a disguise with which he tries to hide his identity, the masked man does not want to pass as a deity, but it is the divinity who has temporarily acting through him. The mask can often be considered a sham. This is the typical conception of ritual associated with the use of masks in Africa.
The occasions of use (in addition to the funeral rites) are the rituals of initiation (used during propitiatory dances, become objects of worship and receive offerings), public ceremonies (hunting, gathering, investiture, etc..), Until the use of some members of the so-called “secret societies” (associations, especially in Africa, where men gather to play some exclusive community activities). A strong point of communion between the various types of masks is the cult of the ancestors of the tribes, often invoked to obtain favors benevolent.
Extensions of the concept of a mask
is primarily an object used to conceal his identity, for example at parties or masquerade carnival. It is used for similar purposes by many imaginary characters of fiction and comics
in psychology wearing a mask is a metaphor to distinguish types of attitudes held in various situations (for example, I posed as with my manager as I do with / to my / a Spouse / Partner), then you can wear the mask clerk, like the Joker or the husband and each one actually does not hide anything, but it allows to show a side of his personality. In fact we are not just friends, companions, workers, political leanings, etc. etc. … but we are the essence of who plays all these roles.
in the graphic is an image that can be inserted superimposed on other images to create the effects of composition
is the part of the user interface of a program, with which the user can interact to perform various operations
In the Venice of the Middle Ages, during the plague, the doctors used to wear a mask whose long nose was filled with spices to a dual purpose: first to cover the stench emanating from the bodies of plague victims and secondly to offer a defense, albeit weak, by infection for the inhalation air. This object is precisely defined “masks of the druggist.”
In ancient Africa were used masks to hide their faces and represent God The African masks in the house, out of superstition, She will turn a person’s misfortunes with diseases that can lead to death.
In a small country Ogliastra exactly Ulassai masks Ingrastula and knows what is Assogadoris, entered houses to get invited and throwing the chaff into the faces of children lucky enough grazing for the following year.