The Mongols are a group of nomadic peoples of Central Asia, Ural-Altaic language and religion Lamaist, spread across a large area from the Lake Baikal region of Manchuria until the (north-east) and Tibet (north-west ). They live in tents and have tapered at the base of their social organization the family and the tribe. In the lifestyle and culture have been deeply influenced Chinese. The Mongolians have given his name to one of the major groupings of human races (Mongoloid).
Even when they were engaged in some type of cultivation, the Mongols were mostly nomads. The transfer of the cattle camps and was determined by the change of pasture land during the year. The animals were individually owned, while the fields were common rule of the tribe.
The most powerful clans tended to control the activities of the tribe. Vulnerable families retained the authority and the possession of their animals, but had to pay a tribute to the dominant clan and moved, camped, grazing cattle and were fighting under his command.
The political and military organization was adapted to the composition of the clan and tribe. A man capable of handling a herm was chief or soldier, according to the needs of the moment. The capture of cattle, women and prisoners of other tribes was a common method of enrichment.
Several times in history the Mongols undertook great migrations going to Europe, as happened in the fifth century. with the invasion of Avars and Huns, and in the thirteenth century. with the conquests of Genghis Khan. In the space of a few decades after 1206 because the Mongols occupied northern China (1215), the states of the front, southern Russia and parts of Poland.
When a tribe was very powerful, like that of Genghis Khan in the thirteenth century, was organized in a decimal, in groups of 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 soldiers. To the leaders of large units was assigned a territory within which riscuotevano taxes and recruit soldiers for the supreme leader.
History of the Mongols oscillates between periods of concentration and dispersion tribal. The Hsiung-nu or Huns were the first inhabitants of the valleys of the Selenga, linking Siberia to the heart of Asia. It is estimated that arrived in the region at least four centuries before Christ.
The Mongolian name appeared for the first time in a written log of the various tribes during the T’ang dynasty of China, and then disappeared until the eleventh century, when Kidan began to reign in Manchuria and northern China, thus controlling most of the territory of Mongolia.
The Kidan established the Liao Dynasty China (907-1125) and ruled Mongolia, keeping the tribes divided between them. The historical records speak of the existence of a nation in this period that included all the Mongols, but it did not include all the people who spoke that language.
The successors of yuchen Kidan were the first Tartars and then, before the era of Genghis Khan. Born in 1162, in a traditionally powerful clans, Qabul grandson (Kublai Khan), senior leader of the Mongols until then, Temujin inherited several estates that had been stripped to his family.
In 1206, thanks to its political and military capabilities, Temujin was acknowledged leader of all Mongols with the title of Genghis Khan. From then on, his armies invaded the north of China and arrived in Beijing. In 1215, the Mongol Empire stretched as far as Tibet and Turkestan.
In 1227, the death of Genghis Khan, the Mongol empire disintegrated because of disputes among his successors, until the throne fell into the hands of the Chinese Ming dynasty, in 1368. China invaded Mongolia and set fire to Karakorum, the former imperial capital, but failed to control the territory.
One of the successors of Genghis Khan Hulagu, began, in Persia, a Mongol dynasty that islamizzò and experienced periods of great splendor, while his brother Qubilay carried out the conquest of China, the Mongols settled in southern Russia were rather absorbed into the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In the fourteenth century. Tamerlane was able to reunite some of the territories formerly belonging to the empire of Genghis, founded the new empire of Timurids, which was centered Samarkand. A grandson of Tamerlane, Babur, founded in India instead of the Mughals.
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the ability to maintain control outside the Great Wall of China called for military mobility of nomadic and sometimes the occupation of the city that served to attract trade and the supply of food grown by Mongolian peasants.
From the far west of Mongolia, the oyrat began to dominate the territory. Sinkian conquered oases in the region and Tibet, where the Chinese empire was weaker, and brought the organization of tribal Mongols its mercantile and administrative experience.
This stage began the separation between the Khalkha and oyrat, whose main body was later formed the Outer Mongolia. The Khalkha in the north and the south sajari maintained a tribal league, while the succession passed to the ordo, under the reign of Altan Khan (1543-83).
To conserve power, the Mongolian princes realized the advantage of being able to rely on a religious ideology, however, because the use of Chinese hid the danger that the Chinese empire absorb them, they adopted the Tibetan Buddhist system, with which there no risk and whose writing was more accessible.
Then Altan Khan invited a religion of Tibet, the Dalai Lama called the Mongols. The unification of the religious interests with the state was achieved through the appointment of an heir of the clan as Khalkha first reincarnation of Living Buddha of Urga.
In 1664, after consolidating his power in Manchuria, the Manchus conquered the Chinese throne, allied with Mongol tribes of the Far East. Before taking Beijing, the Manchus were in control of the south of Mongolia, who was by then known as Inner Mongolia.
The conquest of Outer Mongolia to China took almost a century. For this reason, the two regions had a different development: the Internal s’integrò with China and in the interest of the Khalkha to preserve its power in the south did defeat an attempt to reunify the oyrat Mongolia.
This was the final period of great wars between the Mongols and culminated in a general dispersion. Many groups were Khalkha in the south, some chahari settled in Sinkiang, the oyrat dispersed in various directions, including the territories of Tsarist Russia.
The classes of serfs and nobles remained fairly stable, while that of free men (and nokud Arat) with Genghis Khan underwent a profound transformation, becoming more and more subservient to the aristocracy.
This change, it was already outlined in the eleventh century, when Mongol princes took the habit of yielding to their vassals (Nokes friends) together with grazing lands, including farm families that made them productive.
Genghis Khan, by prohibiting (ARAT) under penalty of death, to move from one to another Noyan, virtually abolished the class of the free and delivered to the aristocrats of the levers of economic power.
Thus the nobles, once guardians of public wealth (the cattle were owned jointly by all the tribal clans), became the landlords, absolute rulers of a primitive economy, where the cattle was the only true source income, and served for a long time to be legal tender.
The Mongolian economy, thanks to the intense traffic of Chinese and Muslim merchants, developed to a more evolved, it came to the adoption as a means of exchange, paper money, secured in its real value from the treasury of the Great Khan.
The paper used was produced by treating the inner layers of the bark of the mulberry, the banknotes were black and wore as proof of their authenticity, the seal of the emperor.
If a bill is spoiled, the owner could change it at the imperial mint, paying for the service three per cent of its nominal value.
Hotels, markets, border posts and roads were subjected to a particular control, to prevent the infiltration of subversive elements capable of disrupting the peace and public order.
Genghis Khan did not seem to be particularly religious, do not ever attributed their victories to the supernatural elements. He said of himself: “As there is only one sun in the firmament, and one power in the sky, so I just have to reign on earth.”
God could exist but should not interfere in his plans.
The subjects, rather than to worship the heavenly forces, paid tribute to a special worship their dead, the four natural elements, air, earth, water, fire, sun and moon. A typical greeting ritual and demanded the salute to the cardinal points.
Guardians and priests of this religious naturalism were the “Beki” or as you would call today (shamans), these helped by narcotics and the rhythm of the drums, during sacred ceremonies fell into “trance”, and this was communicated to these feelings try before you completely lose your senses.
Their religious rites provided by the Mongols and the curious and superstitious forms of religion: the sacred respect for the water was such that virtually prohibit the use, except to satisfy the thirst.
The only lawful means and used for swimming, was to collect the water with his mouth and then spruzzarsela him.
In the house of every prince, a sacred fire was kept constantly by an appropriate officer, in a sign of respect to the fire, was not allowed to vibrate an ax near the flame, the fuel inside push with your feet, mix the ashes with garbage .
The religion of the Mongolian tribes, was completed with the cult of the dead, considered as (gods) household, each family protectors.
On the tombs we prayed, and offered several offers: dolls in felt lined precious fabrics depicting dead segnalatisi alive for their goodness or their wickedness, for they offered food in exchange for receiving, security, or at least have no damage.
When a death occurs, the screaming cry vehemently, and do not pay more taxes for a year, if someone witnesses the death of an adult, for a year may not enter the residence of the sovereign. If the deceased is a child, can not enter it until the end of the lunation.
When a patient is great, you put guards around his house, which does not allow anyone to pass. They fear, in fact, that an evil spirit or evil wind, with visitors from entering.
THE WORLD OF DREAMS
Death to the Mongols, it was like a journey, the last of their lives as eternal wanderers, and as noted by Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, even for this departure prepared everything with care and precision:
Before the dead man has the table with a pot of meat and a cup of mare’s milk, are buried with him a mare with a foal and a horse caparisoned with a saddle and brake, while another is slaughtered and eaten.
They fill a basket with straw and put it up, because the deceased has a house to live in another world and a mare that provide the milk and put other horses in the world, on which to ride.
The dead also bury gold and silver, and the cart on which he has led is broken, and no one dares to speak its name until the third generation.
The tomb is then covered with sod, so that it no longer can find again the position.